Rivista Italiana di Filosofia del Linguaggio 2020-10-23T17:18:41+02:00 Giusy Gallo Open Journal Systems <p><em><span lang="EN-US">Italian Journal of Philosophy of Language</span></em><span lang="EN-US"> (RIFL – Rivista Italiana di Filosofia del linguaggio) is a online-only blind peer reviewed journal publishing articles regarding theoretical and empirical research on Language, mainly in Philosophy, Semiotics, Psychology, Psychoanalysis and Epistemology. RIFL research team privileges an interdisciplinary approach, for a more broad view of language. For this reason, RIFL invites and accepts contributions from different research traditions. RIFL publishes papers in Italian, English, French, German, Spanish and Russian. Each issue is divided in two parts: a monographic one, and another for papers on different subjects (<em>Varia</em>). A specific section of RIFL is devoted to reviews.</span></p> Introduzione 2020-08-20T22:57:17+02:00 Francesca Ervas Elisabetta Gola Franciscu Sedda Gian Pietro Storari 2020-08-17T12:29:08+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 A la recherche des émotions perdues 2020-08-20T22:57:17+02:00 Clotilde Calabi Marco Santambrogio <p>Sometime in the past, something happened that elicited an emotional reaction in me, who took part in the event. Now I remember that event and I re-live over again the emotion I felt at the time. Our problem is, What is this re-living? We argue that when we re-live an emotion, we remember or imagine as present the event that originally triggered that emotion and we have a new emotion directed to that event</p> 2020-08-17T12:41:04+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Clotilde Calabi, Marco Santambrogio Wittgenstein, language and embodied cognition 2020-08-20T22:57:17+02:00 Felice Cimatti <p>Embodied Cognition (EC) is a ‘new’ psychological version of an old philosophical idea: human cognition is grounded in sensorimotor experience. According to EC there is not such an entity as abstract and disembodied knowledge, that is, the root of every form of human knowledge is an acting body in the world. In this paper we will try to show that existing extensions of EC to language partly miss the point because do not fully account for the social and normative nature of language. Therefore, a thorough embodied theory of language requires to consider the Wittgenstein legacy, which stresses at least two main points: (a) a complete theory of language is not possible if not embedded in a more comprehensive description of human way of living; (b) the meaning of a word is not an internal and psychological entity but its social use, it is the action we do using that word/tool. In this paper we will comment on some EC literature showing that it needs to be complemented with Wittgenstein ideas on language and mind.</p> 2020-08-17T12:51:14+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 La glossolalia, i qualia e la semiotica del sentimento 2020-08-20T22:57:17+02:00 Nicholas Harkness <p>Glossolalia, or “speaking in tongues”, is a global Christian phenomenon. The stereotypical image of glossolalia is one of emotionally overwhelming contact with the deity caused by the direct intervention of the Holy Spirit into human speech behavior. For the linguist, glossolalia consists of language-like vocalizations without denotational “content”. For the glossolalist, the utterances contain divine messages that can be revealed through interpretation. This paper explains the process of verbal decomposition and recomposition, as practitioners shift their orientational focus from the narrow semiotic domain of denotation to the diffuse pragmatic domain of feeling, and then back again. Emotions – as both felt and lexicalized – serve as points of orientation throughout the process. Drawing on ethnographic data from South Korea, where Protestants practice glossolalia across denominations and congregations, this paper elucidates the systematic but covert cultural processes that mediate between the more overt forms of lexicalization of “emotion words” and speaker-focal expressions of “emotivity” or “emotionality”.</p> 2020-08-17T13:05:47+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Emotion concepts in a new light 2020-08-20T22:57:17+02:00 Zoltán Kövecses <p>This paper is an attempt to propose a new view of emotion concepts in cognitive linguistics (for the “old” view, see Kövecses 1986, 1990, 2000). The new view builds on two changes to “standard” conceptual metaphor theory (CMT): the idea of conceptual metaphors as multilevel structures and the addition of a reformulated view of context to CMT (see Kövecses 2020). With the help of these two changes to the theory, we can see emotion concepts as multilevel metaphorical structures that are embedded in a wealth of contextual information. The new view also enables us to explain the embodiment of emotion concepts better and allows us to&nbsp; account for the creativity of emotion metaphors.</p> 2020-08-17T13:41:54+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Zoltán Kövecses Comunicare le emozioni con la musica: contorni, forme vitali e qualità affettive 2020-08-20T22:57:17+02:00 Cristina Meini <p>The nature of the relationship between music and emotions has always been disputed. In this paper, I shall endorse contour theory, which accounts for the expressiveness of music in terms of the perception of those resemblances that hold between its contour and the typical contour of human emotional expressions. My defense of contour theory will largely rely on the notion of vitality forms, the structures introduced by Daniel Stern in the context of infant research. I shall argue that, 1) although contours are displayed as vitality forms both in human behavior and in music, 2) in human behavior they are perceived as full-fledged emotional expressions, while 3) in music they are detected only through the two rough dimensions of valence and arousal.</p> 2020-08-17T13:47:09+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Riso e Logos. Il riso semiotico come protolinguaggio, tra emozioni e socialità 2020-08-20T22:57:15+02:00 Claudio Paolucci Fausto Caruana <p>In this paper, we will introduce and discuss a Social Interaction Theory of Laughter, focusing our attention on both the continuities and discontinuities between human and animal laughter. We claim that laughter does not have to be studied from a starting point that prioritises humor, but rather from a theory of emotions able to provide an account of the constructing of social bonds. We will show how there are two main kind of laughter and we will focus on the “semiotic laughter”, the type of the laughter that can be used in order to lie.<br>Starting from Umberto Eco’s theory that connects laughter with death and language, we claim that laughter is a <em>protologos</em> able to shape social interactions in a very unique way. We will also explain why, according to a theory grounded upon a deep continuity between animal and human laughter, it has been claimed that laughter is typical of mankind. Our answer lies in the special relationship between <em>pathe</em> and <em>logos</em> that exits inside human institutions, where emotions have to be modulated under the aegis of the <em>logos</em>.</p> 2020-08-20T22:41:06+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Patemi e enunciazioni appassionate: il modello semiolinguistico riformulato 2020-08-20T22:57:17+02:00 Isabella Pezzini <p>The paper proposes a synthesis of the semiotic research on "passions", developed within the French branch of semiotics known as the Paris School, founded by Algirdas Julien Greimas during the late Seventies of Twentieth century. At first, the research represents a further development of the semiotics of narrativity, the main theoretical trait of this approach, which deepens the relationship between <em>action</em> and <em>passion</em> and the importance of <em>modal devices</em>. Then, emerge broader insights like the role attributed to the lexicon of natural languages in the segmentation of affectivity, and therefore on the cultural dimension of the latter. On the other hand, there is the general reformulation of the generative trajectory of meaning, in order to be able to account for the continuous phenomena characteristic of emotional life and of the forms of its semiotic expression.</p> 2020-08-17T15:46:35+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Emozioni e linguaggio nella sfera pubblica: perché non possiamo fare a meno della retorica 2020-08-20T22:57:17+02:00 Mauro Serra <p>Starting from the second half of the last century, the notion of public sphere has acquired a growing role in Western democracies. Referring to the discursive situations and the communicative processes through which it is possible to reach an opinion on issues of common interest, the public sphere fulfills, in fact, a fundamental function subjecting public discussion to a critical scrutiny. On the other hand, in recent times the progressive degradation to which the public sphere has faced has been underlined by many. A degradation very often attributed to the predominant role that emotions play in it (for example, we can consider the debate around the definition of post-truth). Going back to the theoretical model provided by (ancient) rhetoric, I will try, however, to show that such a thesis, with its inevitable corollary represented by the need to neutralize passions, arises from a misunderstanding of the intertwining of emotions and language in the public sphere. To better&nbsp; highlight the strengths of the rhetorical model, I will also propose a comparison with the two main theories of democracy currently in circulation, “deliberative democracy” and “agonistic democracy</p> 2020-08-17T15:55:03+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Il ruolo delle emozioni nella web reputation: il caso della comunicazione digitale vaticana 2020-08-20T22:57:17+02:00 Angela Anzelmo <p>Our contribution offers to examine the investment of emotions by the Dicastery for the Vatican’s communication (instituted by Pope Francis on June 17th 2015) to study their consequences in terms of credibility and visibility via new technologies. If the politico-religious rhetoric aims at being efficient, and that «saying.» is closely linked to «believing», to «doing» and to «having it done», it is therefore a question of understanding how institutional discourses operate on individuals in so far as they present values on communication<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1">[1]</a> level as well as on manipulative level and seek to bring about an action, a doing of the public in the interactive space of social networks. As it develops more and more appealing techniques that are likely to cause emotion, to create empathy, as the construction of images imprints the memory and the imagination of its users, the Vatican institution appears to have succeeded in rallying the affectivity of its publics by contributing to build a strong communication pact. If emotion constitutes a means to directly reach the masses, considering that in terms of trends, popular culture is of an emotional sort, such an investment can therefore reach the believers as well as the non-believers when captured emotional expressions aspire to be shared. Through the study of the user’s reception process and starting from the relationship between medium and speech, my work focuses on strategic projections from media and digital logic when the latter invests the emotional level to promote the circulation of speeches.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1">[1]</a> Istituito da papa Francesco il 27 giugno 2015.</p> 2020-08-17T16:12:18+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Sguardi sull’altro tra passione e narrazione: la figura del migrante 2020-08-20T22:57:17+02:00 Marianna Boero <p>In the essay <em>Inventing the enemy</em> (2011), Umberto Eco, through a historical excursus, stated that having an enemy has always been important for an individual or a group both to define their own identity and to measure and affirm their system of values. Consequently, when there is not a real enemy, it is necessary to invent it and, in the current communication landscape, the construction of the other is shaped by the different media discourses, which more and more focus their communication on passions and sensations. Indeed, we are immersed in a continuum of passions such as anger, intolerance, homophobia, that arise from media discourses. These passions find different ways of expression but belong to the same flow, in circuits, paths and schemes from which it difficult to move away. Starting from such a premise, this contribution proposes a semiotic reflection on the connection between language and emotions, with particular reference to the phenomenon of migration in Italy, considering the recent conditions that have placed it at the center of socio-cultural circumstances and crisis processes, between collective fears and terminological confusions. In fact, conflicting feelings of people converge to the figure of the migrant, and the role of the language is central in this process. This study aims at describing this issue in details, through the analysis of a corpus of journalistic articles, with specific attention to the role of passions in the argumentation.</p> 2020-08-17T16:21:29+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Le emozioni nel dialogo cinematografico: implicito e tensioni drammatiche nei confronti verbali tra personaggi 2020-08-20T22:57:18+02:00 Paolo Braga <p>Philosophy of language and semiotics have seldom studied cinematic dialogue. The topic has always gained limited attention also in research fields more directly interested in cinema, like film studies. Only recently, within the area of screenwriting studies, a few contributions have started to focus specifically on the importance of dialogue as a part of film as text. I will deal with this issue, specifically considering how dialogue creates subtext – i.e. layers of meaning implied by characters in their exchanges – and, through it, emotions. First, I will argue that dramatic subtext has two fundamental roots: the tension stemming from the character’s inner flaw, and the one stemming from his hidden agenda. On this basis, I will sketch a map of four main types of subtext. Finally, I will highlight which emotional pattern is typical of each kind of subtext, resulting from the interaction between character’s emotions and viewer’s emotions.</p> 2020-08-17T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Il linguaggio del trolling. Ingredienti semiotici, cause socioculturali ed effetti pragmatici 2020-08-20T22:57:18+02:00 Massimo Leone <p>The article singles out and describes the main rhetorical ingredients of trolling through contrasting it with comparable discursive practices: provocation, joke, defensive anonymity, critical public discourse, controversy, and lie. The following elements are found to play a major role in the discursive construction of trolling: topic-insensitive provocation; time-boundless jest; sadistic hierarchy of sender and receiver; anonymity of both the troll and her or his audience; choral character of the ‘actant observer’ of trolling; construction of artificial contradictory semantics; disruption of argumentative logics; irrelevance of the relation between beliefs and expressions. Trolling profoundly disrupts the conversational ethics of the human civilization because it severs expression from content, signifier from signified, communication from intention.</p> 2020-08-17T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Studium, godimento e schema passionale canonico: una lettura incrociata tra Barthes e Greimas 2020-08-20T22:57:17+02:00 Giorgio Lo Feudo <p>This article tries to cross the terms Piacere/Studium and Godimento/Punctum (introduced by Roland Barthes respectively in 1973 and 1980) in order to highlight the analogies that justify this re-combination but also to identify any passionate components</p> 2020-08-17T16:44:46+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Fiducia e affidamento nella politica contemporanea: il caso Salvini 2020-08-20T22:57:17+02:00 Anna Maria Lorusso <p>Through the analysis of a delimited corpus of tweets produced by Matteo Salvini during his period of government as Minister of the Interior, the contribution reflects on how today trust is politically constructed and how this is closer to a form of familiarity and confidence, than to a form of pondering. Thus the boundaries of three tangent but different categories will emerge: trust, reliability, confidence.</p> 2020-08-17T16:51:19+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Mondo ben ordinato e festa mobile. Due grandi configurazioni testuali della nostalgia 2020-08-20T22:57:17+02:00 Piero Polidoro <p>This article aims to describe and analyze two configurations nostalgia may assume; here with “configuration” I mean a set of themes, motives, causes which constitute an adequately stable and definite narrative core. I call the first configuration “well ordered world”; we can find it in a narrative text representing an idealized and simplified model of society. It is not needed it represents an utopian society; a society in which rules are well established and respected and social order is peaceful and widely accepted is sufficient. I call the second configuration “moveable feast”, after the book Ernest Hemingway wrote about his life in Paris during the 1920s. In this case the idealization of the nostalgic object goes towards a community of friends, recurring meeting places, a continuous stream of events. These two configurations are not mutually exclusive, but they satisfy different needs of our souls. The “well ordered world” is reassuring and it spreads in times of anomie. The “moveable feast” talks to younger audiences and works as a collective <em>bildungsroman</em>.</p> 2020-08-17T17:09:44+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 La casa delle belle addormentate. Il corpo come limite e come matrice del discorso passionale 2020-08-20T22:57:16+02:00 Maria Pia Pozzato <p>This article will start by presenting the important theoretical point of the enunciation’s liminal condition: human subjects cannot always conceptualize and express into words their cognitive and emotional experiences which appear to overwhelm them.&nbsp; The main literary example of the article is the novel by Yasunari Kawabata, <em>The House of Sleeping Beauties</em> (1960-61). The choice of this example is in line with Umberto Eco’s claim (2002) that the high quality literature is nothing but a different form of philosophical questioning. Kawabata’s novel is set in a prostitution house that offers its customers, usually elderly, young virgins who are deeply asleep. The old men, simply admire them without touching them, partly because of the physical limits imposed by their age, and partly because the girls are completely unconscious; eventually, they spend the night sleeping next to them. In this story, narrated in the first person, the Japanese writer stages a dialogue between the elderly protagonist, Enuchi, and the sleeping female bodies, which are different every night he visits the house. These bodies seem to possess an expressive proto-linguistic articulation (raised arm/lowered arm, reclined head/straight head, open mouth/closed mouth, etc.), while remaining outside any chance of an effective communication. The analysis shows that both old customers and young women occupy intermediate stages between life and death. But precisely because of their systemic expressiveness combined with their inability to communicate and with the sexual continence of the patrons, the bodies of the ‘sleeping beauties’ become a formidable device to arouse, in the narrator, emotions, memories, desires and reflections. Yasunari Kawabata’s mastery transforms this story, which has an unexpected ending, into a profound reflection on the paradoxical role of the body as both the limit and the source of the passionate discourse.</p> 2020-08-17T17:17:21+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Comunicazioni emotive dei media nell’epoca della «post-verità»: le isole di plastica negli oceani raccontate da la Repubblica 2020-08-20T22:57:16+02:00 Stefano Traini <p>Starting from the debate on the presence of plastic islands in the oceans, in this article I will report the findings of a semiotic analysis of ten articles of the “Usa e Rispetta” campaign against pollution and for a sustainable use of plastics, launched by <em>La Repubblica</em> newspaper on 22 April 2018. Then, I will focus on the analysis of a video about a mass of floating garbage in a corner of the Caribbean Sea, a video which became viral at the end of 2017. In both cases, the emotional component is strongly present, alongside with the following recurrent elements: effects of spatial decontextualization, effects of temporalization oriented towards an apocalyptic future, the use of actors with legitimizing functions (the experts). These analyses suggest the central role of emotions in mass media discourses. As a matter of facts, the appeal to emotions makes information more interesting and immediate to the public than logical and rational elements such as data, counterexamples, refutations and statistics, elements that would make the argumentation complex and articulated.</p> 2020-08-17T17:22:16+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 The embodiment of language: sign function and semiotic threshold 2020-08-20T22:57:16+02:00 Filomena Diodato <p>In the last decades a deep revision of Saussure’s conception of language has shed some new light on the nature of language and its <em>double essence</em>, confirming the inadequacy of the ‘dichotomies’ by which his theory has been vulgarized, especially out of Europe. In a renewed Saussurean philosophy of language, Saussurism is no longer ascribable to an extreme culturalism, nor probably is Structuralism. Indeed, if one rethinks the dialectic between the <em>faculté du langage</em>, the <em>langue</em> and the <em>parole</em>, and then refocuses the notion of sign function and of semiotic threshold, Saussure’s theory and its structuralist implications could as well suggest a non-reductionist perspective that could even venture to enhance the current theories of Embodied Cognition. This paper outlines some routes by which a profitable dialogue could be opened.</p> 2020-08-17T17:39:08+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Il ruolo della ragione e delle emozioni nelle scelte: il caso dei dilemmi morali 2020-08-20T22:57:16+02:00 Gessica Fruciano Michele Raso <p>Those who deal with ethics today cannot fail to take into account the theoretical developments that have recently taken place in the field scientific, by biologists, psychologists, social scientists and neuroscientists.<br>It therefore becomes of significant importance to investigate the characteristics of ethical decisions, their being different from other types of decision as well as the role that rationality and emotions play in contexts where the decision between two alternatives is the source of moral conflict. In recent years, an important contribution to research has been provided by the neurosciences that have occurred posed the problem of identifying the neural mechanisms that underlie moral decision and judgment.<br>There is a very particular branch of analytical ethics called «carrellologia» (trolleylogy), which deals with the so-called «problems of the railway carriage», mental experiments structured to analyze the ability to make decisions in extreme but imaginary conditions.<br>They consist in the evaluation of situations in which the ability to make moral intuitions is tested before a choice of life or death.<br>In a recent experiment, Greene and colleagues (2001) presented a series of moral dilemmas to some subjects undergo magnetic resonance imaging (fmri). The most used dilemmas are the trolley dilemma and the footbridge dilemma.<br>What answers have been obtained since the presentation of these experiments? How many cognitive processes, emotions and reason do they influence choice / decision situations?</p> 2020-08-17T17:50:38+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Simbolicità e emotività negli animali non umani: un tema attuale con radici lontane 2020-08-20T22:57:16+02:00 Stefano Gensini Giulia Palazzolo <p>Are the communication systems of non-human animals endowed with the property of symbolism or are they merely expressions of emotional states? The question has pervaded the philosophical debate at least since the time of Descartes and is now abundantly discussed in the field of cognitive ethology. In this paper, the topic is summarized both from the philosophical point of view (reconsidering Brentan’s notion of ‘intentionality’, often referred to by ethologists, too) and from the experimental point of view, referring to some well-known case-studies of the last decades. It is suggested that a dichotomous, all-or-nothing, vision of the relationship between symbolism and emotionality is, today, outdated in both conceptual and methodological terms. Available evidence on the communication of different primate species shows that the two components interact closely. An embodied approach to animal communication seems to represent an effective way out also from a theoretical point of view.</p> 2020-08-17T18:20:21+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Evoluzionismo e biolinguistica. Per una prospettiva biologicamente fondata sull’origine del linguaggio 2020-08-20T22:57:17+02:00 Laura Giallongo Paola Pennisi <p>The evolution of human language raised a great debate in the field of Cognitive Sciences. Darwin in his biolinguistics proposal traces in the song of the ancestors the origin. However, the attention paid to the inarticulate sounds of the other species and not to the biology of constraints, inevitably influenced the theories on the evolution of language. Biolinguistics has provided a decisive contribution to the issue through the study of the biological basis of human vocal communication, in order to understand the cognitive processes involved and phylogenesis. Furthermore, the ontogenesis of human language is one of the most analysed aspects and the biological and ethological comparison can provide insight for research. In this frame of studies we will examine the recent data of biology of human language and ethology of the vocal communication in primates. It is possible to apply the evolutionist theories to biolinguistics and to assign a structural continuity, in the aim of clarifying the phylogenesis of language.</p> 2020-08-17T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Xenomelia: la sindrome dell’arto straniero 2020-08-20T22:57:16+02:00 Giusy Militenda <p>Xenomelia is a condition not yet recognised as a mental disorder and which conceptual basis is still under construction. The psychiatric literature refers to it as body integrity identity disorder (BIID). People with a disability desire describe a profound mismatch between their actual and their desired body, with respect to its shape or functionality. A frequently used word in their complaints is overcompleteness. People suffer from having four limbs, because they recognize themselves in the identity of an amputee. Those disability desires represent a neurological disorder, specifically a focal syndrome of the right parietal lobe. Clinical neurology identifies many syndromes of various misperceptions of body parts after damage to this site of the brain, ranging from a total neglect of the left side of the body to illusory reduplications and the loss of agency and ownership, to an active aversion or hatred of left-sided limbs. Morphometry shows that there is a reduced cortical surface area for the right inferior parietal lobule in people suffering a disability desire. The question to ask is whether conformance to disability desires can ever be ethically justified. This discussion has unfolded in connection with elective amputations offered to people with xenomelia in some countries. The framework of bioethical principlism indicates that the controversy is mainly about empirical issues.</p> 2020-08-18T15:58:16+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Oggetti personali ed emozioni: il caso degli artefatti affettivi 2020-08-20T22:57:16+02:00 Giulia Piredda <p>In this paper I would like to elaborate the idea of “affective artifact”, framing it in the landscape of situated affectivity (Piredda 2019). Affective artifacts work in the domain of affectivity like cognitive artifacts do in our cognitive life: they sustain, help and transform affective processes and experiences, through the interaction between them and the agent. After having introduced and discussed the idea of affective artifacts, I will propose some elements for their classification and compare it with similar notions, like evocative objects (Heersmink 2018; Turkle 2007) and affective scaffolds (Colombetti, Krueger 2015). Lastly, I will consider some possible criticisms and propose some potential further developments.</p> 2020-08-18T16:41:30+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Empatia, emozioni e linguaggio. Riscoprire la mediazione del linguaggio attraverso la teoria ibrida delle emozioni e i modelli della responsività empatica 2020-08-20T22:57:16+02:00 Andrea Velardi <p>Empathic processes require the cognitive and emotional depth of the role taking in what Janet Strayer called “participatory empathy”, more linked to the lived inner experiences, distinghuished from “parallel empathy”, more linked to the external events. In the contemporary multidimensional models the role taking is the marker of the veridical empathy together with decentralization of the Self. These models rediscover primitive forms of empathic distress, mainly concerning with the emotional dimension, already operating at birth like primary circular reaction and egocentric distress. Hoffman (2000) underlines how only with the advent of the association mediated by language the depth of the role taking achieves its full growth developing also the empathic meta-cognition (awareness that the personal distress is an answer to the suffering of another person) integrating avanced processes of activation and the embryonic ones more linked to the visceromotor embodiment. This contribution starts from an analysis of the limits of the Paul Ekman theory of basic emotions in order to propose a hybrid framework that empahsises the role of representation and language in the recognition and in the generating of the emotional expression. At the end we bind this theory with the empathic responsiveness models, showing the importance of language for the role taking and going beyond both anti-representationalist embodiment and radical constructivism in the mold of culturalism.</p> 2020-08-18T17:00:01+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Andrea Velardi Emozioni in segni: il caso della LIS 2020-08-20T22:57:16+02:00 Chiara Bonsignori Morgana Proietti <p>Theories related to embodied cognition show the important role of body experiences in human cognitive processes (Caruana, Borghi 2016, Clark 1997, Gallagher 2005, Smith 2005, Varela <em>et al.</em> 1991). Sign languages are a special window in exploring the route from perception to concept construction, as they allow to visualize linguistic embodiment of perceptual experiences (Volterra <em>et al.</em> 2018, Wilcox, Xavier, 2013). Iconicity shows a resemblance of semantic and phonological structures, revealing a common conceptual space grounded in cognitive abilities of language users and connected to their world perception and interaction. Different studies highlight the presence of visual metaphors in signs supporting the importance of embodiment and perception of the surrounding world in the construction of meanings (Boyes Braem 1981, Pietrandrea 2002, Russo 2004).<br>The aim of this study is to investigate linguistic representations of emotions in Italian sign language (LIS) focusing on visual metaphors subsumed at the sublexical level. For the present study, we analyzed the handshapes, movement and location of 70 signs related to emotion. Due to this analysis we identified metaphors grounded in parameters’ features (ex: the chest is the container of emotions; the down movement is mostly present in negative signs).<br>Identified visual metaphors reveal the importance of the body in world perception and in the process of building meaning.<br>Improvements in cognitive approaches to language may need to pass through an investigation of the tight metaphorical relation between form and meaning in signed emotion-related lexicon.</p> 2020-08-18T17:23:13+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Il triangolo non l’avevo considerato. Metafora, immagini mentali e proposizioni tra Relevance Theory e Perceptual Symbol Theory 2020-08-20T22:57:16+02:00 Marco Carapezza Stefania Garello <p>In this paper we will show the need for a multimodal approach to the study of metaphorical utterances. We will discuss this hypothesis showing potentials and limits of the metaphor studies conducted within Relevance Theory, which has represented the most authoritative and radical theoretical framework based on the propositional character of metaphorical utterances. In particular, we will focus on the last papers by Carston (2010, 2018), in which it is recognized that the comprehension of complex and poetic metaphors could involve the activation of mental images. We will discuss the problem that the notion of mental imagery poses to Relevance Theory and we will try to overcome these problems by an hybridization between Relevance Theory and Perceptual Symbol Theory. Then, we will suggest that local and novel metaphors, such as “love is fresh fruit”, could require the activation of mental imagery too and we will characterize this kind of metaphor in terms of compresence of narrowing, broadening and conscious experience of a multimodal mental image.</p> 2020-08-18T17:38:57+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Esprimere l’inesprimibile: la Grande Guerra come ‘accadimento dell’impossibile’ 2020-08-20T22:57:16+02:00 Valentina Cardella <p>For the huge number of soldiers involved, the disruptive technology employed, for its length perceived as potentially endless, the Great War is an unprecedented event, an experience absolutely impossible to foresee or even imagine before it took place (Leed, 1985; Fussell, 2000; Gentile, 2008). It comes as no surprise, then, that the protagonists of this event, the soldiers, produced an impressive amount of documents, not only letters, but also diaries, memoirs, autobiographies, an actual river of words which seems to convey a sort of compulsion to write, an inner need to tell this absolutely new experience (Gibelli, 2014). But these features of modern and total war are exactly what made World War I a limit experience, an ‘impossible happening’ (Gibelli, 1991), for the generation who lived it. The awareness of this impossibility belongs not only to historians and historiographers, but also to the WWI’s protagonists themselves, who, living this global carnage in first person, often testify the lacking of a vocabulary able to describe this unspeakable experience. Thus, this paper aims to investigate the way the WWI’s protagonists tried to express the inexpressible: by leaving things unsaid (censoring what was too horrible, or auto censoring themselves, or removing the experience), choosing compromise solutions (i.e. attempting to minimize or to find a new language), or arriving to the last form of expression of the unspeakable, that is the symptom (war neurosis).</p> 2020-08-18T17:45:25+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Gestalt, campo (d’azione) e totalità nella lingua 2020-08-20T22:57:16+02:00 Marina De Palo <p>The notion of <em>field </em>has been very productive in twentieth-century language theory in its various forms and varieties: it is an important epistemological notion, originally developed in physics, in the psychology of perception and in <em>Gestalt </em>psychology, and later introduced in language theories. In this transition, an important step was the notion of field elaborated by Bühler, in his studies on perception and <em>Gestalt, </em>as well as on animal languages, along the lines of the ones also carried out by Köhler. In Bühler’s work, situation and context jointly determine the material space for the play of linguistic forms (<em>Spielraum</em>). The idea of <em>action </em>is the key to his notion of field<em>. </em>Only if speech is defined as an activity can one hope to arrive at a ‘total’ object: the total <em>field</em>, or, rather, field of action, that connects representation and expression.</p> 2020-08-18T17:57:55+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Imperativi, emozioni e significato 2020-08-20T22:57:16+02:00 Alfonso Di Prospero <p>In this paper it will be inquired the relationship between cognitive dimension of emotions, imperatives and their possible formal analysis, and the general structure of communication. It will be sustained that the difficulties underlined by Jørgen Jørgensen with his “dilemma” concerning the logical analysis of imperatives, can be useful to show that there are more general problems in the attempt to conceive of human knowledge as intrinsecally determined by the format of intersubjectivism.</p> 2020-08-18T18:06:52+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 On the non-specificity of slurs 2020-08-20T22:57:16+02:00 Aldo Frigerio Maria Paola Tenchini <p>A quite neglected question pertaining to the classification of the different theories on slurs concerns their extendibility to other pejoratives and expressives in general. In this paper, we show that the linguistic behaviour of pejoratives is similar to that of slurs. Therefore, a theory on slurs that is also extendible to other pejoratives and expressives is, other things being equal, preferable to a theory that is not applicable to other classes beyond slurs. Slurs seem to differ from other pejoratives as the latter seem to target single persons and not a class of persons. This implies that the derogatory component of slurs does not seem to project outside negative, conditional, modal and interrogative contexts. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that this difference is deceptive due to some specific features of the other pejoratives, such as targeting negative characteristics or having a fuzzy extension</p> 2020-08-18T18:13:59+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Semantic Quantum Correlations in Hate Speeches 2020-08-20T22:57:16+02:00 Francesco Galofaro Zeno Toffano Bich Lien Doan <p>The intervention shows the first results of a research conducted on a corpus of 7000 posts collected on the Reddit social network during the 2016 American presidential campaign. The research is the result of a collaboration between Berkeley D-Lab, who shared the corpus, LSI - CentraleSupélec and CUBE. Thanks to funding from the Anti-Defamation League, the corpus has been labeled to apply Machine Learning techniques: 400 posts have been labeled as “hate speech” by human analysts. Galofaro, Toffano and Doan applied to both sub-corpora (hate and non-hate speeches) an analysis technique inspired by Greimas’s structural semantics, Eco’s semiotics, and Quantum Information Retrieval (van Rijsbergen).<br>Each text was formalized as a semantic network using the HAL technique. We then measured the semantic similarity between two key words formalized as two word-vectors with the classical measure of cosine-similarity and then compared it with the degree of quantum correlation between them measured with the Born rule. This correlation, linked to the co-occurrence of the word vectors in the same contexts, extracts from the latter useful information to characterize the considered semantic relationships (“presence of correlation”, “absence of correlation” or “presence of anti-correlation”). In this way, the new technique allows to overcome some critical aspects of the Machine Learning techniques currently in use, being based on the meaning of the text and not on the way in which the human analyst labels the corpus.</p> 2020-08-18T18:24:04+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Food and Foods. Toward a Definition 2020-08-24T00:20:18+02:00 Andrea Borghini Nicola Piras <p>When I’m hungry, I try to seek some food, namely an object that is edible and that can feed me and preferably it has to be tasty. It seems a very easy task to find it for there is an alleged natural boundary between what counts as food and what does not. I can naturally pinpoint that boundary. Nevertheless, at a closer inspection, such boundary turns out to be suspicious: a roasted human being is both edible and nutritious, and someone may even find it tasty, and yet it can be hardly considered as food. Likewise, a rotten food item is neither edible, nor nutritious and however it can be sometimes considered as food, such as marcescent cheese. Our aim in this paper is to nail down the different conceptions which regulate our conception of what is a food and then come up with a proper definition. We set forth four different stances: a biological one, i.e., food is what holds certain natural properties, an individual one, i.e., food is what can be eaten by at least one person, an authority one, i.e., food is what is considered so by an authority, and a social one. i.e., food is what is institutionally recognized as food.</p> 2020-08-20T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 L’autobiografia e il racconto del trauma: a partire da Parole soffocate di S. Kofman 2020-08-20T22:57:16+02:00 Julia Ponzio <p>In <em>Paroles suffoquées</em>, published in 1987, Sarah Kofman addresses the issue of how to tell a trauma starting from the loss of her father, deported to Auschwitz. The question of the relationship between language and emotions becomes, in Kofman’s text, the tension between the duty of the witnesses and the difficulty of finding the words to tell a painful event. <em>Paroles suffoquées</em> starts with a quote from <em>Le pas au delà</em>, in which Blanchot describes the event of the Shoah as an interruption of history. This interruption of history is also a lack of the words necessary to tell the pain. <br>Kofman wonders how to find this suffocated word to narrate the trauma. To find the suffocated words is necessary not only to ask how to tell, but also to question the meaning of this tale, the relationship between language and history, and the space of autobiography within this relationship. In this paper, I try to show how Kofman, in <em>Paroles suffoquées</em>, through a constant dialogue with Nietzsche, Blanchot and Derrida comes to the idea of ​​a language without reference in which the suffocated word begins to resonate not as meaningful but as voice.</p> 2020-08-18T18:34:16+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Educare all’identità e all’affettività nella scuola primaria attraverso il pensiero filosofico 2020-08-20T22:57:16+02:00 Valeria Angelini Matteo Bianchini <p>There are two main guidelines that accompany the path: philosophy for the self, as a construction of philosophical thinking and identity, and philosophy for others, as a construction of the relationship through the methodology of Didactics for questions.<br>Philosophical thinking allows us to seize again the etymological meaning of school (from Ancient Greek <em>Skoleion</em>, free time), in a school where everything is contingent, where for children there is no longer free time. In the present, free time generates boredom, but it also becomes the nourishment of creative thinking and divergent thinking, it stimulates questioning and wonder.<br>In our perception, the philosopher is inevitably taken by amazement and wonder and the reciprocal is valid: he who does not experience amazement and wonder cannot philosophize. By their nature, children are spontaneously led to amazement and wonder, so we ask ourselves why they should not philosophize, being naturally philosophers.<br>There is therefore a need to educate the word and language in children, to let them become adults aware of their thoughts and relationships: whoever has responsibility for the learning relationship can become an accompanist for the construction of students’ identity and their education in affectivity through philosophical thought.</p> 2020-08-19T16:56:33+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 La valenza cognitiva della ricerca concettuale di Wittgenstein sulle emozioni 2020-08-20T22:57:16+02:00 Moira De Iaco <p>Starting from an examination of Wittgenstein’s conceptual investigation on emotions, this paper aims to highlight the intertwining between emotions and language: no matter how emotions take form in language and they are super-structured by it, language is not able to reduce emotions within the conceptual space since emotions transcend language influencing and expanding it. The goal becomes to answer questions such as: what can Wittgenstein’s conceptual investigations on emotions show to cognitive studies? Does it include elements that anticipate cognitive studies’ outcomes?</p> 2020-08-19T17:02:17+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Analfabetismo emotivo e dislivello prometeico: la prospettiva di Günther Anders 2020-08-20T22:57:16+02:00 Filippo Di Stefano <p>In this contribution we have analyzed the connection between language and emotions, through the difficulties that arise when this relationship breaks. When we have no words to mean our emotions, we don’t know what we feel, and we become inscrutable to ourselves and to others. Scientists have called “alexithymia” this inability to recognize our emotions and to transfer them to the level of the words. In the first part of this contribution we talked about alexithymia in young people of today and about the important role of education in helping youth to overcome their discomfort. According to Galimberti’s theory school could help young people of today to find themselves through education of the heart. In the second part of this contribution we have analyzed emotional illiteracy in Günther Anders’s perspective. We have particularly analyzed the mutism of man in the face of catastrophes generated by himself with the help of technology.</p> 2020-08-19T17:17:12+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Linguaggio ed emozioni dallo spazio privato ai social network a partire da Stevenson 2020-08-20T22:57:15+02:00 Giusy Gallo Claudia Stancati <p>The aim of our article is to reconsider language and the emotional meaning of words in the framework proposed by Charles Stevenson, in the interweaving of ethics and linguistic studies. The emotional meaning of words, depending on the history of its uses and the effects produced, pushes or directs people to perform actions, influencing the choices of speakers and questioning the nature of ethical expressions as social tools. We would like to underline how, precisely through the linguistic approach, emotions move from the intimate and private sphere to the public and collective sphere, considering examples of digital communication and the phenomenon of post-truth.</p> 2020-08-19T17:23:12+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Il leone ha due code? Wittgenstein e la storia naturale 2020-08-20T22:57:15+02:00 Marco Mazzeo <p>In the thought of Wittgenstein the notion of «Naturgeschichte» constitutes an important junction: for some it would be a decisive piece of the so-called third phase of its production; «natural history» is certainly a close relative of the concept of «Lebensform». What Wittgenstein means by the expression is, however, an open question. Dissolving this knot may perhaps clarify the salient features of the «anthropological approach» of Wittgenstein (Hacker 2013: 114) and help us understand if the philosopher’s thought can be accused or not of «historiophobia» (Glock 2006: 281).</p> 2020-08-19T17:33:51+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Al cuore dell’agire. Rilevanza del timico per le passioni 2020-08-20T22:50:45+02:00 Tiziana Migliore <p>This article proposes a reconception of the thymic category in semiotics and philosophy. The nature of ϑυμός (<em>thymós</em>) to be a mix of venous and arterial fluids on the one hand and of temperaments on the other, has diverted current philosophy and social sciences from field studies focused on the effects of ϑυμός on behaviour and in personal decisions. Yet this the sphere of passions related to the physical structure of the human organism, which depends in part on the character of the individual, in part on cultural norms, habits and social judgments, has a significant impact on the perception that man has of his own body and of the external world, on the formation of tastes and distastes, and the transformation of senses into values. By examining the notion of ϑυμός in Greek tradition – in literature, philosophy, medicine and rhetoric, with the enthymeme – we will demonstrate its function as the psychosomatic “motivation” to act. It can be grasped in the coming and going between enunciation and semantics at a deep level, as it exposes personality effects on the person.</p> 2020-08-19T17:42:49+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Il ritmo del linguaggio e delle emozioni 2020-08-20T22:57:15+02:00 Maria Grazia Turri <p>The rhythm has been a crucial role in acquisition of vocal language structure and in its application. Vocal language structure could be emerged thanks to the fact that the motor system of human body, on the one hand, operates in a structurally rhythmic way, on the other hand, the human body shows a special sensitivity to rhythm, and especially to rhythm defined by imitative and connective recurrence of movements, acts and actions. Among movements the emotions have played, and play, a key role for vocal language. Furthermore, linguistic structure is itself made up of motor movements, acts and actions, and its development may not have involved generally simultaneously the set of functional elements to vocalization and of hearing, which has made it clear that motor system is particularly sensitive to rhythm of sounds.</p> 2020-08-19T17:49:13+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Le emozioni tra arte e psicologia. Alcune osservazioni su Wittgenstein e l’estetica 2020-10-16T21:20:23+02:00 Elena Valeri <p>The radical antipsychologism of Wittgenstein and the lack of relevance which he ascribes to causal (empirical-physiological) links between works of art and psychological reactions seem to allow no room for a positive consideration of emotions, and to disable any attempt to assign aesthetic value to the emotional element. Presenting and discussing some of Wittgenstein’s insights on the aesthetic experience (§§ 1-2) and on the concept of emotion (§ 3), I will argue that this is actually not the case. Rather, for a Wittgensteinian (in inspiration) aesthetics or philosophy of art emotions are certainly important. In particular, my suggestion is that for Wittgenstein emotions are definitely part of our way of speaking about art, and the relationship between emotions and (works of) art which has some validity in aesthetics is the one of inherence or immanence: we use emotions to describe (works of) art in words and by doing so, we also define the quality of emotions, making them understandable to us through art.</p> 2020-08-19T17:56:26+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Ritmo, affetto, senso. Ecologia dell’interazione e complessità sociale 2020-10-23T17:18:41+02:00 Antonino Bondì <p><span class="fontstyle0">In this paper I will examine the notions of rhythm and affect, to evaluate their theoretical depth in the framework of an expressive and morphodynamic theory of semiolinguistic action. At first I intend to argue that rhythm and affect are conceptual tools useful to restore the complexity of semiolinguistic interactions and coordination and, to do so, I will focus on two different disciplinary areas. On the one hand I will resume research from developmental psychology and Infant Research, where rhythm is an indispensable dimension to define the intensive structure and the dynamic gait of the dialogic intersubjectivity. On the other hand, I will examine some implications of the concept of affect, today at the centre of the debate in cognitive anthropology and media studies. Affect, in these contexts, seems to have as much to do with the invoice of things as with the emotional dimensions and relational forces that structure the field of experience, determining its forms of cultural codification and social sharing.</span></p> 2020-08-20T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c)